Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Du Bois And Booker T Washington Essay - 1150 Words

Both W.E.B Du Bois and Booker T. Washington were prominent figures in the advancement of African Americans during the 19th and 20th centuries. The facade of unity among these leaders was broken when Du Bois addressed Washington’s book, Up From Slavery, in a chapter named â€Å"Of Booker T. Washington and Others† from his novel, The Souls of Black Folk. Although he did acknowledge the accomplishments of Washington, Du Bois was clearly opposed to most of his ideas. Through the topics of submission and education, Du Bois exposes the paradoxical nature of Washington’s plan and presents a stronger argument than the passive Washington. As Washington tries to prevent controversy within the white and black communities, he weakens his arguments and is†¦show more content†¦After making this blanket statement about the shared compassion of slave and master, he comments, â€Å"From some things that I have said one may get the idea that some of the slaves did not want freedom. This is not true. I have never seen one who did not want to be free, or one who would return to slavery† (pg. 555). In this instance, he is concerned that the black community will think he is advocating for slavery and tries to fix it by clarifying his view on slavery a few paragraphs later. However, this is not a clarification, it is Washington contradicting himself. The two ideas he presents, slavery made a mutualistic relationship between black and white people and his disapproval of slavery, are on very opposite sides of the spectrum. If he opposes slavery, there is no reason to mention his experience with a nice master because v ery few slaves had that experience. The conflict between ideas creates doubt and decapitates his argument before it can be scrutinized. Because of his concern with pleasing everyone, Washington appears submissive and creates weaknesses in his argument that Du Bois easily discredits. Washington believed that industrial education is superior to the higher education of African Americans and Du Bois’s argument against this shows the flaws within his reasoning. In order for African Americans to be truly considered equal in the American society, theyShow MoreRelatedEssay on W.E.B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington1240 Words   |  5 PagesW.E.B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington were two very influential leaders in the black community during the late 19th century, early 20th century. However, they both had different views on improvement of social and economic standing for blacks. Booker T. Washington, an ex-slave, put into practice his educational ideas at Tuskegee, which opened in 1881. Washington stressed patience, manual training, and hard work. He believed that blacks should go to school, learn skills, and work their way up theRead MoreEssay on W.E.B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington864 Words   |  4 PagesW.E.B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington Two great leaders of the African American community in the late 19th and early 20th century were W.E.B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington. They disagreed on strategies for African American social and economic progress in the face of prejudice, poverty, and segregation: Booker T. Washington, a former slave and the founder of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, believed that African Americans needed to accept segregation and discrimination for theRead More W.E.B Du Bois vs. Booker T Washington Essay2087 Words   |  9 Pagesbe left out; Booker T. Washington and W.E.B Du Bois. They were both African-American leaders in the late 1800’s to early 1900’s, fighting for social justice, education and civil rights for slaves, and both stressed education. This was a time when blacks were segregated and discriminated against. Both these men had a vision to free blacks from this oppression. While they came from different backgrounds, Washington coming from a plantation in Virginia where he was a slave, and Du Bois coming from aRead MoreBooker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois and John Hope Essay1286 Words   |  6 Pageswhite and black populations. Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois and John Hope all attempted to conquer these tough issues base d on their own experience and cultural influences by sharing their opinions. A well-respected African American leader named Booker T. Washington gave a speech that would be later named the Atlanta Compromise at the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta on September 18, 1895 (Booker T. Washington Biography). Booker T. Washington was born in to slavery andRead MoreCritical Evaluation Essay1006 Words   |  5 PagesKatherine Oneil 22 July 2012 CRITICAL EVALUATION ESSAY Introduction In W.E.B. Du Bois’ â€Å"Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others,† Du Bois criticized Washington’s policy of racial accommodation and gradualism. Du Bois rejected the latter’s willingness to avoid messing with the racial issues and pushed for his views on political power, the continuance of the civil rights fight, and higher education for all the Negro youth. Washington emphasized that education should be attained in orderRead MoreW.E.B. Du Bois vs. Booker T. Washington1344 Words   |  6 PagesA Clash of Ideologies: W.E.B. Du Bois vs. Booker T. Washington During the turn of the century, between the years 1895 and 1915 there were many theories of how African Americans were going to achieve first-class citizenship. At this time first-class citizenship was determined by at least three aspects: political power, civil rights, and the higher education of Negro youth. Two prominent black leaders arose in order to accomplish this feat. They had two different ideas for one goal. These two blackRead MoreEducation And Complex Communication : Booker T Washington1071 Words   |  5 Pagesmake, many people doubted this to ever be a possibility. One of the people who contributed to making this a possibility was Booker T Washington. Booker Taliaferro Washington was an African American educator, author, and advisor to presidents of the United States. Between 1890 and 1915, Washington was the dominant leader in the African American community. One thing Washington insisted throughout his career was that education was an absolute necessity in the Afric an American community. One of his mostRead MorePolitical Leadership And Its Effects On African Americans1393 Words   |  6 Pagesof the black people. It was at this time that W.E.B Du Bois and Booker T. Washington stood out to defend the black people in the ruling of America. The two political leaders advocated for the provision of human rights to the black people and to the end of oppression, mistreatment and discrimination in America. Booker T. was born in the early 1850s, he later becomes a political activist in fighting for the human right. Additionally, W.E.B Du Bois, was born on 1860s, Dubois was later a well-known, AmericanRead MoreBlack Leaders: Booker T. Washington and William Edward Burghardt Du Bois1816 Words   |  8 PagesBooker T. Washington and William Edward Burghardt Du Bois were influential black leaders. Their leadership strengthened the minds of the black race. During the decades of Reconstruction following the Civil War, African Americans struggled to be assimilated into the new American society. To do this African Americans required social and economic equality. Two great Negro leaders that emerged for this cause were Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois. With these two strong-headed men, another problemRead MoreBooker T. Washington. B. Du Bois1138 Words   |  5 PagesNovember 2014 Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois Essay Booker T. Washington and W.E.B Du Bois had significantly different views on how blacks could move towards attaining racial equality during the late nineteenth century in the United States. Washington believed that blacks should work hard to earn economic freedom by means of striving for strong education objectives. Du Bois believed that only political empowerment and voting could end African Americans oppression. Washington had the better

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Management Technique and Training Course †

Question: Discuss about the Management Technique and Training Course. Answer: Introduction: Waste management, also known as waste disposal is the application and implementation of all techniques and activities that focus on managing waste from the time of their inception to their final stage of being disposed. Some of these activities include collection, pick-ups, transportation, treatment, and disposal of wastes. In that case, waste management requires monitoring and regulation at all times as well as the adherence of environmental rules and regulations set up by the government and other authorities (Cordeiro et al, 2012). Waste management is necessary especially for a country to be able to keep their environment clean and attractive. Wastes includes various kinds of wastes like residential wastes, business production wastes or rather commercial waste which all need to be dealt with. Technically, when dealing with the commercial waste management process and system, the business organizations basically require effective and smart strategies to help them through the process (Qian and Burritt, 2007). These kinds of wastes relate to different commercial processes, e.g. during raw material extraction, during the process of producing a final product, after the consumption of the product among other things. In addition to that, there are different types of wastes from different kinds of industries in the commercial world. However, in this assignment I will focus on discussing the strategies that a medium sized furniture producing business can to manage its waste. The organization of my choice is Smart City Solutions Company located in Melbourne, Australia. It is a small medium sized business with more than 500 employees and earns a revenue of around 10 million per year. The business was started in 2000 and has grown since then. The business has been specializing on the specialization and production of modern technological systems and machines that will help manage waste disposal in Australia. Smart City Solutions Companyhas concentrated its efforts into providing smart, connected and effective waste management methods to enable clean and friendly environment for the people of Australia ( It produces and avails suitable software and hardware materials that are capable of disposing waste products from different regions, industries and to cater for various types of wastes. I will also use an example of a wood or furniture producing industry that has always been sou rcing its raw material on its own and using them to make its products, i.e. input resources like timber, wood and other inputs to use during the production of the furniture. Therefore, this being the main inputs to be used in the furniture industry, it certainly requires smart strategies to manage its wastes products which are always large in amounts which can be provided and availed by Smart City Solutions Company. This is because this type of industry is likely going to produce wastes in every stage of operation. The businesses executive members are basically the top management team which include of the business owners and the managers. These people are mainly responsible for providing the finances required for any business operation as well as are in charge of making any major decision that is required to be made for the business to be operational (Zsolnai et al, 2012). They are basically the final and overall decision makers. Therefore, they need to be knowledgeable and skilled when it comes to any issue that regard business operations, including waste management issues. Basically, Smart City Solutions can provide management solutions to any business wastes. For instance, furniture and wood producing companies produce wastes during raw material extraction (cutting wood into timber, wastes like tree barks, saw dust, small chips of wood etc.), during the furniture production process (wastes like sawdust, slabs, timber edges, and veneer cores) after long use of the furniture (often refers to a s old product) (Daian and Ozarska, 2009). Therefore, the executives in Smart Solutions should be aware of exactly what the business requires to achieve effective and efficient waste management i.e. strategies. Smart Solutions being a waste management solutions company it has an obligation to attend to and help a furniture producing company and any other business that produces its own raw materials. Smart Solutions must identify and evaluate what the business requires to achieve better waste management plan and techniques in general. This includes being aware of the businesss employees creativity, capability and innovative measures especially towards planning and implementing better strategies for waste management. The employees can play a crucial role in enabling and ensuring effective waste management strategies and methods simply because they are the ones making use of the raw materials and producing these wastes. Also, they certainly must have various ideas on how these wastes ca n be managed, e.g. by recycling, reusing or reducing their production itself. The main objective of this process is to help Smart City Solutions to effectively and efficiently develop and improve its current strategies on waste management in all is production operations. The company produces modern and technologically developed strategies that are more suitable for waste management in the current world. For instance for a furniture producing business that produces wastes from the process of raw material extraction to final product production requires specific techniques to manage those wastes. Currently, some furniture companies have been burning and leaving these wastes to be misused and destroyed by either water or wind without fundamental importance. These wastes are materials that can be used for many other different purposes like production of paper in the paper industry (Murphy et al, 2007). The wastes produced during raw material production can be used as fuel rather than being burnt anyhow (Li, 2012). The wood chippings and sawdust produced during the manufacturing process can be used in the paper industry as well. In other words, these wastes can be used in an entirely different business as raw materials for producing other different products (Top, 2015). Therefore, when Smart City Solutions Company device, develop and implement its modern methods into these companies, especially strategies that help focus on production of a new product like paper by using these wastes as raw materials can be a better way of inflicting effective and efficient waste management strategy. This relate to techniques like reusing and recycling of the wastes produced by the business during the production of its products. Additionally, the company can also manage these waste effectively by finding better ways to reduce the production of the wastes themselves. This may relate to encouraging these industries into using better technology, machines and process to extract raw materials and manufacturing the products (Deac et al, 2011). The reduction of the wastes produced is one of the best methods because it will certainly contribute directly to the performance of the business and probably increase its profits as well, this is not only in furniture producing industry but other industries as well. To be able to implement these new ideas and strategies, the business executive group will be notified and educated about the desired changes and developments that the strategies are expected to bring to the business itself, the countrys economy and Smart City Solutions itself. Also, the business will focus on other methods of waste management strategies which will be its new culture like improving its waste measu rement methods, techniques of reducing wastes that go to landfill, identifying local collectors and users of such wastes, understand and participate in waste recycling contracts and programs and implement waste material collection systems around the business itself. Smart City Solutions can measure business waste by basically inspecting the locations where waste products may have been produced and estimating their measure. The business management should ensure that all the occasions and possible wastes are recorded in amounts and how often they are produced. This will help the company determine how much waste it produces and how often which will help it device methods to manage the waste better and effectively besides reducing the effects to the environmental and forests impacts inflicted (Koskela, 2011). Therefore, by coming up with more effective and modernized methods to measure and determine waste material amounts, Smart City Solutions will certainly achieve its objective (Yigitcanlar, 2016). This relates to waste management methods like total reduction of the wastes entirely, reuse and recycling of the wastes (Redmond et al, 2014). The reduction of the wastes can be achieved by improving the production and manufacturing processes used in producing the raw materials and final products, or rather developing, and improving the operating system of the production process. Smart City Solutions should focus on developing the current strategies that enable waste material reuse by finding out whether there are other companies or industries that can use the wastes as raw materials, e.g. paper industry. Recycling involves finding which wastes materials can be used once more in the process. This is a strategy that will work hand in hand with the recycling and reusing strategies. When a business is able to create better ways to determine the amount of wastes and that which can be used in landfill, it can be able to locate and target the local waste collectors (Snchez-Medina et al, 2014). These collectors will help the business not only get rid of the wastes, but also make use of the wastes in a positive way. This can be done by enabling effective communication and connection between the companies involved, e.g. by use of modern software collecting system and connectivity system. This may involve the authoritative association, the government and other business that may need the wastes that a company produces (Shazwin and Nakagoshi, 2010). A business should be able to identify and make use of the recycling programs and contracts that may be available in the country especially those that relate to environmental cleanness and economy development and growth (Walker et al, 2008 and Bergeron, 2016). For instance, Smart City Solutions can encourage all furniture producing industries and businesses to enter into contracts with the paper industry whereby these businesses should be providing the paper industry with the wastes for their use as raw materials. Through this, the will be implementing he recycling and reusing of waste products. This strategy is meant to focus on waste reduction and accumulation at the business premises. It is the responsibility of Smart City Solutions to device various techniques of collecting the wastes produced during any operation of any business that they are in charge of. The company should ensure that the techniques used become a routine ad an operation on its own. Through this strategy, Smart City Solutions will help the business connect with waste collectors and other companies that may require these wastes as raw materials for their products (Redmond et al, 2008). All of these strategies in this plan will certainly cost the company some money in order to implement them and for them to be effective and efficient. However, some of them will be less costly than the others. For instance, the strategy on measuring business wastes, reduction of wastes that go to landfill and identification of waste material collectors for recycling purposes are some of the strategies that may cost less for the business. However, the strategy on implementation of waste material collection systems, identification and participation in waste material contracts and programs will be more costly for the business. This is simply because the business will have to go out of its way to do a lot of research on the businesses, their industries, and types of wastes produced and be able to adhere to various legal rules and regulations governing the industry and the country at large. According to Pittman and Wilhelm, 2007, this basically will cause an effect to the businesss financ ial status but also the countrys economic status. Conclusion Waste management is crucial practice for all businesses especially those whose operations will always lead to production of waste materials at any point. However, waste management practices are certainly different for every country, e.g. practices implemented in developed and developing countries, urban and rural areas, residential and industrial areas are all different. Generally, there are various ways to dispose business waste products e.g. incineration, recycling, reusing and reduction among others. These are the most common strategies to implement when the objective is to manage the waste produced during product production. However, different businesses and industries may implement different strategies depending with the type of waste produced especially in the current modern technological advanced world. In this assignment, Smart City Solutions Company is a waste management company that specializes on development and improvement of the common strategies of waste management by u se of technology. Therefore, it should certainly focus on implementing the best and most effective and efficient strategies that can help it get rid of the waste that any business produces during any operation. For instance in wood or furniture producing businesses, most of the wastes produced are mainly related to wood. Therefore, the best strategies for Smart City Solutions to implement are the ones listed above but with the use of their technology (software and hardware equipment), especially working with the paper industry in the region which is the best way to get rid of and make use of waste products in a positive manner. References Bergeron, F.C., 2016. Energy and climate impact assessment of waste wood recovery in Switzerland.Biomass and Bioenergy,94, pp.245-257. Cordeiro, J.J., Sarkis, J., Vazquez-Brust, D., Frater, L. and Dijkshoorn, J., 2012. An evaluation of technical efficiency and managerial correlates of solid waste management by Welsh SMEs using parametric and non-parametric techniques.Journal of the Operational Research Society,63(5), pp.653-664. Daian, G. and Ozarska, B., 2009. Wood waste management practices and strategies to increase sustainability standards in the Australian wooden furniture manufacturing sector.Journal of Cleaner Production,17(17), pp.1594-1602. Deac, T., RO?, V. and DEAC, M., 2011. An energy analysis of the sawdust pelletizing process: a systemic approach.Research Journal of Agricultural Science,43(1), pp.312-319. Koskela, M., 2011. Expert views on environmental impacts and their measurementing the forest industry.Journal of Cleaner Production,19(12), pp.1365-1376. Li, M., 2012.A waste management system for small and medium enterprises engaged in office building retrofit projects(Doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of Technology). Murphy, J.A., Smith, P.M. and Wiedenbeck, J., 2007. Wood residue utilization in Pennsylvania: 1988 vs. 2003.Forest products journal,57(4), p.101. Pittman, J. and Wilhelm, K., 2007. New economic and financial indicators of sustainability.New Directions for Institutional Research,2007(134), pp.55-69. Qian, W. and Burritt, R., 2007. Environmental accounting for waste management: A study of local governments in Australia.The Environmentalist,27(1), pp.143-154. Redmond, J., Walker, E. and Wang, C., 2008. Issues for small businesses with waste management.Journal of environmental management,88(2), pp.275-285. Redmond, J., Walker, E.A., Parker, C.M. and Simpson, M., 2014. Australian SMEs waste to landfill.Australasian journal of environmental management,21(3), pp.297-310. Snchez-Medina, A.J., Romero-Quintero, L. and Sosa-Cabrera, S., 2014. Environmental management in small and medium-sized companies: an analysis from the perspective of the theory of planned behavior.PloS one,9(2), p.e88504. Shazwin, T.M. and Nakagoshi, N., 2010. Sustainable waste management through international cooperation: review of comprehensive waste management technique and training course.J. Int. Dev. Coop,16(1), pp.23-33. Top, Y., 2015. Waste generation and utilisation in micro-sized furniture-manufacturing enterprises in Turkey.Waste Management,35, pp.3-11. Walker, E., Redmond, J. and Wang, C., 2008. Waste recycling: local methods for successful interaction with small business.International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development,7(4), pp.363-382. Yigitcanlar, T., 2016.Technology and the city: systems, applications and implications(Vol. 99). Routledge. Zsolnai, L., Junghagen, S. and Tencati, A., 2012. Redefining the roles and duties of management.Journal of Global Responsibility,3(1), pp.121-133.

Saturday, April 4, 2020

Verbal Aggression Essay Example For Students

Verbal Aggression Essay Verbal aggression is message behavior which attacks a person’s self-concept in order to deliver psychological pain.(Infante, 1995) Studies of verbal aggression have focused primarily on children and adolescents in educational and social settings. Very few studies were found to examine verbal aggression in adults in the workplace.(Ebbesen, Duncan, Konecni, 1974) The consequences of verbal aggression in the workplace can lead to social isolation, job related stress, health related problems, as well as problems in career advancement. It therefore should be considered important, for the individual and management, to identify and address the causes of verbal aggression. This program attempts to understand verbal aggression by 1) identifying the various functions of verbal aggression. We will write a custom essay on Verbal Aggression specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now 2) identifying the antecedent conditions of verbal aggression. 3) Avoiding the antecedent conditions of verbal aggression. Method Subject The subject, Shirley J., is a 49 year old African American female. Shirley J. has several advanced degrees and is employed as a school psychologist in a metropolitan school district. She is married with two adult children. The subject readily agreed that the target behavior, verbal aggression, is a problem as it interferes with her relationships with others. She was enthusiastic in her desire to reduce, if not eliminate, this behavior. It would seem that self-monitoring for verbal aggression and antecedent control would be valuable as it would allow for consistent avoidance of verbal aggression. As a school psychologist the subject was very familiar with the basic principles of applied behavioral analysis and frequently offered programmatic suggestions. A behavioral contract was developed jointly between the therapist and subject. The contract outlined the target behavior, success criteria, and individual responsibilities of the therapist and subject. (see Appendix A) Apparatus A basic checklist was used to document the frequency of verbal aggression on a daily basis. The checklist was designed to track only the occurrence of the behavior. It was felt by the therapist that the content of the verbally aggressive message would be too open for subjective interpretation and that no meaningful data would be gained from such documentation. In addition the subject made frequent comments of significant success or failure in avoiding verbal aggression for discussion with the therapist. The weekly discussions were used to evaluate the appropriateness of the procedures used and make any necessary adjustments to the program. Procedure For the first two weeks of the program no intervention was applied. Given that the subject self-reported that verbal aggression was a problem it was important to determine if the frequency of the behavior merited intervention. Therefore, the subject documented the daily frequency of verbal aggression. The results of the baseline period revealed a high rate of verbal aggression. (see Appendix B) Given the results of the baseline data as well as the demanding, often stressful, nature of the subjects job, it was mutually agreed that reducing verbal aggression would be the focus of the program. Verbal aggression was defined as cursing, yelling, and screaming at others. The agreed upon goals of the program was to decrease verbal aggression by 75% of baseline for four consecutive weeks. Treatment would consist of identifying and avoiding the antecedent conditions to verbal aggression. Avoidance of the antecedents is considered less restrictive, more proactive, and most effective. During the initial consultation it was determined that the antecedent conditions included, but was not limited to: work stress, time of day, verbal behavior of others (ie. tone of voice, inflection of voice and content of conversation, etc.), and non- verbal behavior of others (ie. facial expression, body posture, eye contact, etc.). In addition, the subject was required to self monitor for the following antecedents: clenched fists, tight jaw, rapid heart beat, and the emotions of anger, frustration and disappointment. Lastly, it was suggested by Infante (1995) that appropriate strategy must be taken to prevent verbal aggression from escalating. Successful avoidance of the antecedent conditions consisted of removing oneself from stressful situations, when possible, as well as not responding verbally when provoked. Weekly consultation revealed that verbal aggression was most often used to: 1) Escape demand situations. .u3d274c5dfb4f8c663810612a96ee12c2 , .u3d274c5dfb4f8c663810612a96ee12c2 .postImageUrl , .u3d274c5dfb4f8c663810612a96ee12c2 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u3d274c5dfb4f8c663810612a96ee12c2 , .u3d274c5dfb4f8c663810612a96ee12c2:hover , .u3d274c5dfb4f8c663810612a96ee12c2:visited , .u3d274c5dfb4f8c663810612a96ee12c2:active { border:0!important; } .u3d274c5dfb4f8c663810612a96ee12c2 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u3d274c5dfb4f8c663810612a96ee12c2 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u3d274c5dfb4f8c663810612a96ee12c2:active , .u3d274c5dfb4f8c663810612a96ee12c2:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u3d274c5dfb4f8c663810612a96ee12c2 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u3d274c5dfb4f8c663810612a96ee12c2 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u3d274c5dfb4f8c663810612a96ee12c2 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u3d274c5dfb4f8c663810612a96ee12c2 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u3d274c5dfb4f8c663810612a96ee12c2:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u3d274c5dfb4f8c663810612a96ee12c2 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u3d274c5dfb4f8c663810612a96ee12c2 .u3d274c5dfb4f8c663810612a96ee12c2-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u3d274c5dfb4f8c663810612a96ee12c2:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Lock harts Lament Paper Essay 2) Avoid demand situations. 3) Relieve job stress. The subject was to document the frequency of verbal aggression and record the circumstances of significant success or failure during the

Sunday, March 8, 2020

buy custom Understanding the Essential Elements of Contracts essay

buy custom Understanding the Essential Elements of Contracts essay Contracts can a dangerous business if one of the parties fails to fulfill their obligations. In contract law, failing to fulfill the requirements of a contract is referred to as a breach of contract. A breach of contract of one party is usually a disadvantage for the other party unless that injured party is compensated in a mutually agreeable way. Contracts are usually between two people but at times a third party can be involved. One of the essential elements of contracts is an offer and acceptance. Fredo, the owner of the Candy Restaurant in Oakland, makes Sandiman, of Sandiman Construction Ltd, an offer of $250,000 if Sandiman begins the renovation of the Candy Restaurant on exactly July 1st and completes it by August 31st. Sandiman accepts this offer. There is no evidence whether this contract has been just stated orally or if both parties signed the contract on a piece of paper. Therefore, it may have been an informal contract rather than a formal contract. However, even though Sandiman agreed to fulfill all obligations as stated in the contract, it was not possible for him to do so. Sandiman realized that he was not able to complete all that work on time because it is just too much work to do and he also has a shortage of staff. In addition, being under a time constraint did not help matters. Sandiman stated that he would be willing to do all the work, even with the shortage of staff, if he could be given till the middle of September to complete the job. Therefore, Sandiman was trying to re negotiate the terms of the contract. What took place between Fredo and Sandiman is known in legal trms as a battle of the forms. As a result, Fredo made counteroffer to Sandiman. By making a counteroffer, Fredo made the other contract void. Therefore, under these circumstances, Fredo was not obligated to pay Sandiman $250,000. When making the counter offer, Fredo requests that Sandiman completes the work on time for an additional sum of 50,000, to be paid on August 31st along with the original sum of 250,000. Therefore, Fredo makes a new offer of 300,000 in exchange for the satisfaction of his requirements. However, it is important to mention that Fredo makes this counter offer through Ted who is the CEO of Sandiman Construction Ltd. When Sandiman calls and asks about speeding up the renovation process, he speaks to Ted. This counter offer is legally binding despite the fact that Fredo does not speak directly to Sandiman but makes the final negotiations through a third party. Sandiman is aware of the counter offer because he expects the additional 50,000 on August 31st. Sandiman completes the work on time. The additional sum enables Sandiman to have more staff working for him. Sandiman is right for demanding the extra payment because he accepted Fredos counteroffer and fulfilled his part of the obligation . By refusing to pay this sum, Fredo has breached the new contract. Sandiman has a right to sue Fredo for the $50,000. Fredo is legally bound to pay the original sum because he has received the services. Sandimans option is to go to court and have the court order Fredo to pay him. By stating that he has provided the service on time, Sandiman can use the function of what is called a quasi contract to his advantage. A quasi contract would proovide a legal protection for Sandiman against being treated unjustly by not being paid the required sum. By definition, a quasi contract can provide the enforcement of the originally agreed upon contract by the order of the court. A quasi contract ensures that all parties involved in the original contract are treated fairly. The legal dispute between Fredo and Sandiman can be compared to the Goldthorpe v Logan (1943) precedent. In this case, a woman answered posted by a beauty salon that advertised the removal of facial hair. The woman went for the treatment but it failed. The woman sued the company and won. The ad served as an offer and the woman accepted the offer. Therefore, she had a contract. The ad promised to do something and it failed. In the same manner, Fredo promised to do something for Sandiman yet he failed to do so. Although Fredo did not make direct negotiations with Sandiman but rather through Ted, still he made a promise of paying the additional $50,000. On the other hand, Fredo might understand why he is being asked for the $50,000. Obviously, he does not feel that it is his duty to pay the additional sum. Looking at this legal matter from his perspective, Fredo might be going by the original contract and the previously agreed upon terms. Although Fredo did make a counter offer to Sandiman, he was induced to it by Ted, the CEO of Sandiman Construction Ltd. Although he agreed to it, he might feel that it was not a fair bargain. He might be remembering that Sandiman has originally agreed to perform all the work on time for the previously stated amount of money. Therefore, he might be thinking that Sandiman expects what is called in legal terms as an unjust enrichment. Buy custom Understanding the Essential Elements of Contracts essay

Friday, February 21, 2020

Causes and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes in Urban China Essay

Causes and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes in Urban China - Essay Example 2005 pp2132) (Appendix i). Because of the human body's need to properly process and synthesize dietary sugar, an ailment which interferes with that process intrudes into fundamental health and lifestyle choices of affected individuals. In addition, because the disease can also include debilitating complications such as blindness or sensory impairment (WHO_FS 138 2002: 1), diabetes not only has a devastating impact on individuals, but also on their regions, their countries, and the world at large. To fully understand the crisis represented by this disease, it is important to establish its causes and contributing physiological and behavioural phenomena. Diabetes is a chronic condition that occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. The resulting hyperglycemia and related metabolic disturbances can lead to serious damage to many of the body's systems, particularly nerves and blood vessels (WHO_FS 138 2002: pp.1). There are two principle forms of diabetes, known as type 1 and type 2. Type 1 is characterized by failure of the pancreas to produce insulin, and type 2 by the inability to properly utilize insulin. Treatment normally consists of insulin injections type 1 diabetics, and oral medications in conjunction with lifestyle changes for type

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Lisa Benton Case Analysis Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Lisa Benton Case Analysis - Assignment Example This report will also understand the importance of the leadership approaches in an organization and the display of different kinds of traits by the assistant product manager. The study will also give an insight to the various managerial situations that could have been managed properly and systematically by the manager to avoid confusion within the organizations. Finally, the study will conclude by suggesting certain recommendations that can also serve the purpose of a guide for future. Leadership Approach The leadership approach exhibited by Lisa Benton at multiple stages and situations is Bureaucratic leadership. Bureaucratic and Autocratic leadership style are almost similar to each other except for the fact that the employees and the team working in the organization are totally governed by rules and regulations. This leadership approach focuses on accomplishment of tasks and objectives within a stipulated time frame (Skinner, 1992).The leader understands the rules and regulations of the organization and is responsible for making the employees understand these rules. The leader is often reluctant to change and does not welcome change and development within the organization easily (Terry, 2003). ... At the present moment she has certain managerial traits which are almost similar to transactional leadership. The difference between transactional and transformational leadership is a clear example of the distinction between manager and leader. At the present moment Lisa requires a leadership approach which can serve the purpose of a guide and also help in addressing her shortcomings. As per theorist Helgesen certain feminine characteristics make the women leader advantageous than the male leaders like excellent communication skills, good listener, ability to solve potential conflict and advanced intermediary skills (Flores, Stanford & Oates, 1995). In this case power based leadership approaches can help Lisa in addressing the problems of the organization. The leadership theory proposed by French and Raven lays emphasis on the fact that leadership is a continual process and one individual should exert power over the other individual in a positive way (Flores, Stanford & Oates, 1995). Leadership theories like trait, personal behavior and contingency theory can act as catalyst in improving the efficiency of the employee and the organization. The theories laid emphasis on the fact that leadership action is interrelated to the degree of the authority vested by the manager on his subordinates. There is an existing continuum which consists of boss centered leadership approach on one side and subordinate centered leadership on the other side. This theory will help Lisa to clearly communicate her ideas and ideologies to her subordinates and her boss. Lack of Influential Power Lisa has excellent managerial traits which could not be translated into smooth

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Marketing Plan For Fragrance Direct Marketing Essay

Marketing Plan For Fragrance Direct Marketing Essay Fragrance Direct is a toiletries retailer who sells branded, discounted perfumes, aftershaves, cosmetics,hair care, skincare, cosmetics and beauty products. This report investigates and discusses the Fragrance Directs current marketing situation in an intensively competitive marketplace and to prepare an appropriate two-year marketing plan which could lead the company to increase its market share. The report was prepared after critically considering all marketing theories and tactics in context of Fragrance Direct like e-business strategies, product development, marketing decision making and organizational strategy, marketing segmentation and positioning, SOSTAC planning model etc. A projected budget was prepared and justified for the projected marketing plan. Marketing plan Regardless of types of business, any business needs a concrete marketing plan if they were to succeed. Brassington Pettit (2006) define, Marketing plan is a detailed, written statement specifying target markets, marketing programmes, responsibilities, timescales and resources to be used, within defined budgets. A two-year marketing plan is made for Fragrance Direct which could aim to help them to achieve a growth in market share. SOSTAC planning model Many approaches can be used to make a marketing plan. SOSTAC planning model is the one which includes all essential marketing plan and it is the most useful one. Here I used Smiths (1997, pp 32) SOSTAC planning model to make a two-year strategic marketing plan for Fragrance Direct: S- Situation Analysis (where are we now?) At present, direct selling businesses are booming due to increased home broadband services. The case suggests that Fragrance Direct is one of a number of specialist internet-based retailers at the moment. Their strength is they can sell products cheaper than any other competitors who trade through physical stores. According to their website, they are able to offer highly competitive prices and this is done by keeping overheads low. There is no shop, no middlemen as they supply their products directly to the customer ( Fragrance Direct, 2009). So the company is in a good shape and has the ability to grow even further. O-Objectives (where do we want to go?) Though the company has been growing rapidly but according to the case scenerio in order to achieve their medium-term growth targets they need a major push to broaden their customer base and increase market share. There is opportunity for the company to do that. So the key objectives Fragrance Directs management should adopt right now are to target new segment while maintaining existing products portfolio and develop new products for the targeted segments. This way they can manage to retain the present market share as well as there is possibility to increase their customer base with the help of launched products. S-Strategy (how do we want to go there?) Selecting the correct segment and correct proposition is the key to success. Kotler Armstrong (2006) point out that the market consists of many types of customers, products and need. The marketer has to determine which segments offer the best opportunity for achieving company objectives. Traditionally Fragrance Direct have not focused in male grooming audience yet although the case report suggests mens fragrace market is worth over 500 million US dollars and the demand is steadily increasing. So as an existing market player this the segment where Fragrance Direct should exploit if they want to increase their market share. Most of the existing toiletries market players targeted young man while the report indicates this segment is declining. On the other hand older segment is increasing so Fragrance Direct should target this segment with widen products base. Market segmentation is important for any company like Fragment Direct as it helps to target its marketing mix more closely and p recisely. T-Tactics (the details of strategy) Tactics tend to be short term and flexible, whereas strategy is longer term and more enduring. When strategy is agreed the next job for marketers to develop tactics. Smith Chaffey, (2005) hinted that E-marketing tactics focuses on deciding the optimum marketing mix (pp 338). Marketing mix The marketing mix concept is one of the core concepts for marketing. 7Ps framework for marketing has achieved high degree of acceptance. Armstrong Kotler (2007) define A marketing mix is the set of controllable, tactical marketing tools that the firm blends to produce the response it wants in the target market. Here, the 7Ps marketing mix tactic has been discussed in context of Fragrance direct: 1. Product: Products should be developed in accordance with customer demand and developed products should meet the need of targeted segment of the market. At present the male grooming product market is confined with aftershave fragrances and a limited range of hair care products. So there is scope to broaden the sell of different others new products like mens bath and body, mens skin care, mens sun care, mens accessory etc. as the demand is consistently increasing. 2. Price: When determining the price it is important to remember that whether customers are willing to pay the price or not; they have the ability or not. Wrong pricing could lead the market failure. According the companys website their one of the aims is To keep prices as low as possible to make high street shopping a thing of the past. However they are under intense compitition from traditional sellers lke chains of chemists (pharmacists, drugstore) and supermarket chains who have started selling health and beauty products thorough their physical stores as well as through internet and they are capable to offer cheaper price. So new products should be priced as cheap as as possible as a penetrating price while continue to offer existing cheap price for others products. 3. Place: The place is where customers buy the product. For Fragrance Direct place is internet from where customers by their products. Products must be delivered in right time, and in the right quantity in order to maintain the highest level of customer satisfaction. Fragrance Direct aims to make shopping online quick, easy and convenient and to provide an excellent level of customer service. They also aim to make their site fun, interesting with bargains and a range of products (Fragrance Direct, 2009). To mainten these services storage, inventories and distribution should be maintained appropriately. 4. Promotion: Through promotion activities a company delivers messages to its cusomers about the products, brands using variety of media and communication tools. Smith Chaffey (2005) suggests that the ten promotional mix (advertising, selling, sales promotion, PR, sponsorship, direct mail, exhibitions, merchandising, packing and word of mouth) -can be used to communicate or promote in the online or offline world (pp 54). Fragrance Direct should use all of these means to fulfill their mission-To be the first name you think of when buying fragrance and cosmetics on the internet. The case article suggests that male style magazines such as GQ, FHM and Loaded have huge impact on male in the UK so they should specially promote the site with those magazines. 5. People: We could assume the online business as service marketing. In service marketing people or staff is a very important part of marketing mix. The challenge for Fragrant Direct is to continue recruiting right people, train them and reward them appropriately. 6. Process: Process in a web-based company includes internal and external process as well as transactions, internal communications etc which are necessary to run a business. All processes have to be executed excellently to make the business a success. Fragrance Direct must keep an efficient process by keeping site updated to indicate if any number in stock changed, product specification, price change, dealing with customers e-mail enquiries, product dispatch etc. 7. Physical evidence: In an online business, the quality of the site is the physical evidence (Smith Chaffey; 2005, pp. 66). Normally customers buy intangible services from Fragrance Direct through their site so there is an amount of uncertainty in the process. So Fragrance Direct must ensure customers buying the services must meets acceptable standards of speed and ease of use. A- Action (or implementations-putting the plans to work) Smith Chaffey (2005) states that action stage reveals the details of tactics. Actions implement the tactics. Any kind of project action plan can be used like critical patch or Grant chart. Following is the Grant chart which reflects a two-year action plan for Fragrance Direct: Table 1. Grant chart for Fragrance Direct Activity April 2009 June 2009 July 2009 Dec 2009 Jan 2010 March 2010 April 2010 September 2010 Oct. 2010 Dec. 2010 Jan 2010 March 2011 Get approval for new product development Product development Build information/brochure Run banner campaign on website Offline press launch of new products Website update C- Control (measurement, monitoring, reviewing and modifying). In any marketing planning, details should be added about how the plan would be monitored, measured and controlled. If any components of the plan are not working it should be reviewed, modified if necessary even should be stopped. The following diagram shows a two-year Control system for Fragrance Direct: Table 2. Model of Control systems for Fragrance Direct (two-years) Quantified objectives Means of measuring Frequency of measurement (quarterly) Accountability Cost Action (Who needs to be alerted?) Building information/brochure June 2009 Marketing executive  £2000 Marketing executive à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Sept. 2009 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Dec. 2009 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.. March 2010 June 2010 Sept. 2010 Dec. 2009 March 2011 The 3Ms In any marketing plan all company resources required to be included. Smith Taylor (1997) state that the three resources, 3Ms, cover: 1. Men/Women (the human resources) Skilled professionals (men/women) need to brought in to make the organization run as well as existing human resources need to be retained with training, rewarding. However it was discussed before in the marketing mix people section. 2. Money (budget) 3. Minutes (time) These two points are discussed in the later section. Timeframe Any e-marketing plan must contain timescales, schedules and deadlines. It must take time for Fragrance Direct to analyze their recent market situation, targeting, segmentation, new product development, promotion campaign etc. So everything should be done according to timeframe as time seems often the most tight of the resources. Without a proper timeframe the marketing plan may get uncontrollable. There is a time frame for fragrance Direct: Table 3. Timeframe Activity Timing Market research 6 month Product development 3 month à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.. Projected budget An adequate budget is required in order to achieve the plan. Like any other retailer Fragrance Direct now have to face the tough competition from competitors. Retailers are cutting prices in a desperate bid to sell their goods. A research by Ramasesham (2000) found that even prices are cut to a level where extra sales are made at a tiny gross margin. At the same time retailers are facing cost rises which are in many cases higher than the rise in selling prices. The following projected budget is made according to Ramasesham (2000) research where he investigated from marketing budget how much money should be spent in different marketing activities e.g. 33% of total marketing budget should be spent for advertising and so on. Table 4. Projected marketing budget Item of Percentage of total marketing expenditure accounted for by item Advertising 33 Promotion 15 Personal selling 28 Storage 2 Order filling 4 Delivery 2 Clerical sales, accounting 5 General and administrative 5 Research 1 Credit 1 Others 4 Total 100 Recommendations conclusion Fragrance direct is a successful company who posseses the ability to offer products at great prices, whilst still concentrating on a high level of service. So it is possible for them to out perform their rival and increase market share if they have been able to follow a perfect strategic marketing plan. It is strongly recommended that they strictly follow the suggested two-year strategic marketing paln in accordane with tight controlling measures. It is also recommened that this is the time to concentratte on suggested marketing segment, penetrate the market with new developed products and apprppriate marketing mix. References Armstrong, G. Kotler, P. (2007) Marketing: An introduction. New Jersey, USA: Pearson Prentice Hall Brassington, F. Pettitt, S. (2006) Principles of Marketing. 4th edition. England: Pearson Education Limited Fragrance Direct (2009) About Us [online] [accessed 9 April, 2009] Kotler, P. Armstrong, G. (2006) Principles of Marketing. 11th edition. New Jersey, USA: Pearson Prentice Hall Ramasesham, B. (2000) Research Note: Marketing Budgeting Practices of Retailers Retailers Marketing Budgeting. Smith, P. R. Chaffey, D. (2005) e Marketing eXcellence. 2nd edition. Oxford, England: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann Smith, P. R. Taylor, J. (1997) Marketing Communications. 4th edition. London: Kogan Page